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翻译练笔:国之重器--安阳司母戊鼎(请指正不足)
分类:学学做做扮小家   2007-12-20 22:19

   国之重器----司母戊鼎  

Treasure of the country----Si Muwu Ding, the ancient cooking vessel

 

公元前14世纪未的一天,一个伟大的帝王带着他的子民,来到了黄河流域一片肥沃的土地上,这个地方叫做“殷”,正是他的这一壮举,注定了商王朝数百年的繁荣富强。

One day in the 14th century B.C. one great emperor was leading his people, to the place with fertile land called "Yin" along the Huanghe River valley. Just because of this magnificent feat, a rich,strong and prosperous Shang Dynasty was doomed to last for several hundred years.

当时的商朝子民,生活富庶,除了生活的必需,还有大量的物品在集市上交换,形成了中国最早的交易人群,“商人”一词便由此而来。

Shang Dynasty was rich and populous. There were a great quantity of goods exchanged on the bazaar, People of the time had formed the earliest transaction crowd , "businessman" was one word from it.

铜鼎是商周时期最为重要的礼器。

The copper Ding (a tripod with two handles)was the most important sacrificial vessel.

鼎为中国古代炊食器,提起鼎,人们首先想到的是政权和社稷,鼎可以说是中华文化的一种象征。

When mentioned about the copper Ding, people would first think about regime and country. The copper Ding was the symbol of Chinese culture.

在那个时代,鼎是贵族身份的代表。

Meanwhile, it was also the status representative of the aristocrat .

典籍载有天子九鼎、诸侯七鼎、大夫五鼎、元士三鼎或一鼎的用鼎制度。此外,鼎也是国家政权的象征,《左传))有载:“桀有昏德,鼎迁于商;商纣暴虐,鼎迁于周”。

According to the ancient system which said that the emperor had nine Ding, seigneur seven, premier five, bachelor three or one. In addition, the copper Ding was also the symbol of the regime. Zuo Zhuan, the Annals of Zuo,said,For the emperor of Xia dynasty had the dim morals, the Ding was transferred to Shang dynastyFor Shang dynasty was brutal, the Ding was transferred to Zhou dynasty”.  

 

鼎大多为三足圆形,但也有四足的方鼎,司母戊鼎便是最负盛名的四足大方鼎。

Mostly, the copper Ding was round with three legs, but also had the four-legged one. Si Muwu, the copper Ding was the most well known Ding with four legs.

 

司母戊鼎是商后期即约公元前十四世纪至公元前十一世纪的铸品,是目前为止世界上发现的最大最重最古老的青铜鼎。

Si Muwu Ding was made approximately from 14th B.C. to 11th  B.C. , which is the most greatly heaviest and the most ancient bronze.

司母戊鼎高133厘米、口长110厘米、口宽79厘米、重832.84千克此鼎器形庞大浑厚,其腹部铸有司母戊3字;是商王祖庚或祖甲为祭祀其母所铸。

Its height is 133 centimeters, caliber length 110 centimeters, caliber width 79 centimeter, weight 832.84 kilogram. It is huge and vigorous, on its abdomen which was casted with “Si Muwu” 3 characters; It got the name because it was founded by Emperor Zugeng or Zujia for sacrificial offering his mother.

司母戊鼎的鼎身和鼎足为整体铸成,鼎耳是在鼎身铸好后再装范浇铸的。

Si Muwu Ding was firstly founded its body and the legs for the whole, the two ears were installed later.

铸造这样高大的铜器,所需金属料当在1000千克以上,且必须有较大的熔炉。经测定,司母戊鼎含铜84.77%、锡11.64%、铅2.79%,与古文献记载制鼎的铜锡比例基本相符。

The casting of such a big copperware  needed the metals above 1000 kilograms, also must have the big furnace. According to the mensuration, Si Muwu Ding contained copper 84.77%, the tin 11.64%, the lead 2.79%, which matched case with the ancient records.

司母戊鼎立耳、方腹、四足中空,除鼎身四面中央是无纹饰的长方形素面外,其余各处皆有饰纹。

Si Muwu Ding had standing ears,square abdomen, and empty legs. It was decorated with different beautiful lines except the rectangle parts of its four sides.

在细密的云雷纹之上,各部分主纹饰各具形态。

Above the compact Yun-lei(cloud & thunder) veins, various part of main decorative design were in each shape.

鼎身四面在方形素面周围以饕餮作为主要纹饰,四面交接处,则饰以扉棱,扉棱之上为牛首,下为饕餮。

Around the body of Si Muwu Ding, Haoxiang(a gluttonous beast) was the main decorative design, while on the interface point of its four sides, door leaf  arris could be seen. Above the door leaf was the cow head, below was the Haoxiang(a gluttonous beast) .

鼎耳外廓有两只猛虎,虎口相对,中含人头。耳侧以鱼纹为饰。四只鼎足的纹饰也匠心独具,在三道弦纹之上各施以兽面,这上面的每一处饰物,无不体现出了殷商王朝帝王的霸气。

Two tigers crouching near the ears of Si Muwu Ding contained the head of people in the mouses. Beside the ears of Si Muwu Ding, fish veins could be seen as a decoration. The veins design of the four legs of Si Muwu Ding were also unique, on three string veins, the animal masks were carved. All decorations above incarnated shows the supremacy of the emperors of Shang Dynasty.

据考证,司母戊鼎应是商王室重器。其造型、纹饰、工艺均达到极高的水平,司母戊鼎充分显示出商代青铜铸造业的生产规模和技术水平,是商代青铜文化顶峰时期的代表作。

According to the textual research, Si Muwu Ding should be the treasure of the royal court.Its style, the decorative design, the craft had achieved the extremely high level., Si Muwu Ding fully showed the scale of production and the technical level of bronze casting in Shang Dynasty. It’s representative works of the Shang Dynasty at its bronze culture crest time.

司母戊鼎最早是在19393月被盗掘者从侯家庄西北岗吴家柏树坟园盗掘出土。

Si Muwu Ding was firstly resurrected from Wu family cypress graveyard,, Northwest Gang(hillock), Houjia village in March, 1939.

古董商出高价20万大洋,约合现在的人民币2000万元购买此鼎,但因体积过于巨大,要求盗掘者分割开运走。

The antique dealer offered the high price 200,000 silver dollar,which approximated 20,000,000 Renminbi Yuan nowadays, to purchase it. because of its huge size, they asked the grave robbers to dismember and transport it.

盗掘者面对着20万大洋的诱惑,使尽全力开始锯鼎,但是磨平了二十多根钢锯,盗掘者也未能锯下大鼎的一根腿,古董商只好作罢。

Facing 200,000 silver dollars, the grave robbers did their best to saw the Si Muwu Ding. But after using more than 20 hacksaws, they had not been able to saw even a leg, the antique dealer had to give up.

盗掘者又想把大鼎砸开卖废铜,折腾了半夜,只砸下了一只鼎耳,当鼎耳落地之时,突然之间狂风大作,电闪雷鸣,盗掘者以为触怒了上天,吓得一个个跪地求饶,当闪电平息之后,盗掘者急忙将司母戊鼎埋入原墓之中。

The grave robbers planed to break open it to sell the waste copper which cost them about half of the night to cut down only one ear of the Ding, Suddenly came the strong gale, the lightning with thunders, the grave robbers thought they had enraged the heaven,they all one kneels begged for mercy with one kneels, after the lightning subsided, they buried Si Muwu Ding hurriedly in the original grave.

                                                                         
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